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Latest News & Reviews

Frontier Publications

The publications produced by the Society for Environmental Exploration cover a wide range of conservation, biodiversity and development issues. Here you can download any of our publications, ranging from those created by our staff or research assistants working in the field, to those publications produced in collaboration with our in-country host partners which include local universities, government authorities and local and international NGOs.

If you would like any further information about any of the listed papers or articles please contact

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Frontier Fiji Marine Conservation 182 Science Report

Frontier Fiji Marine Conservation 182 Science Report



year(s) of publication : 2018
author(s): Fanning, E , Saleh, C , Dosell, A , Storm, N , Doran, G
countries: Fiji
regions(s): Beqa Island

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Belize Beach Conservation, Manatee Conservation,
Marine Conservation and Diving Programme 182 Science Report

Belize Beach Conservation, Manatee Conservation, Marine Conservation and Diving Programme 182 Science Report



year(s) of publication : 2018
author(s): Fanning, E , Anastassiou, D , Afeltra, C , Best, D , Pipe, S
countries: Belize
regions(s): Caye Caulker

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Costa Rica Forest Research Programme 182 Science Report

Costa Rica Forest Research Programme 182 Science Report



year(s) of publication : 2018
author(s): Fanning, E , Korein, E , Bond, G , Earl, S , Johnson, S.G
countries: Costa Rica
regions(s): Osa Peninsula

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Madagascar Marine Conservation Project 182 Science Report

Madagascar Marine Conservation Project 182 Science Report



year(s) of publication : 2018
author(s): Fanning, E , Rogan, K , Bennett, L
countries: Madagascar
regions(s): Nosy Be

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Madagascar Forest Conservation 182 Science Report

Madagascar Forest Conservation 182 Science Report



year(s) of publication : 2018
author(s): Fanning, E , Clark, R , Smart, M , Berger, MC
countries: Madagascar
regions(s): Nosy Be

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FJM 181 Review of data collection methodologies in collaboration with ReefCheck.

FJM 181 Review of data collection methodologies in collaboration with ReefCheck.



year(s) of publication : 2018
author(s): Fanning, E , Dosell, A , Storm, N
countries: Fiji
regions(s): Beqa Island

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Belize Phase 181 Science Report

Belize Phase 181 Science Report

Belize, formerly known as British Honduras, is a Central American country on the Eastern coast. Belize is bordered by Guatemala from the West and Mexico from the North with the Caribbean Sea to the East. The small mainland area is roughly 290 km long and 110 km wide. The Mesoamerican Reef is the largest barrier reef in the Northern Hemisphere and the second largest barrier reef in the world (Seijo, 2007). Large areas of the barrier reef are protected by the Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (BBRRS) and therefore it has been designated a world heritage site by UNESCO for the past 20 years. Included in the BBRRS are 7 marine reserves, 450 cayes and 3 of the 4 atolls present: Turneffe Atoll, Glover’s Reef Atoll and Lighthouse Reef Atoll (home to the Great Blue Hole dive site made famous by Jacques Cousteau) (Gibson et al., 1998). The Belize Barrier Reef (BBR) is the largest single section of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) and extends 998 km from the tip of the Yucatan Peninsula to Honduras; making it the second largest barrier reef in the world. The Frontier Belize Marine project (BZM) was established in April 2014 within the Caye Caulker Forest and Marine Reserve (Figure 1). CC is a small limestone island located approximately 20 miles North-Northeast of Belize City at 17°44’33N 88°1’30W.The Frontier Belize camp is located on the North island of Caye Caulker (CC) and hosts Marine Conservation, Diving and Beach Conservation volunteers.

year(s) of publication : 2018
author(s): Fanning, E , Givel, D , Anastassiou, D , Best, D , Smith, K.B
countries: Belize
regions(s): Caye Caulker

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COSTA RICA FOREST RESEARCH PROGRAMME, Phase 181 science report

COSTA RICA FOREST RESEARCH PROGRAMME, Phase 181 science report

Assessing vertical canopy use in Ateles geoffroyii and Alouatta palliata will add to the current knowledge of these ecologically important species. In addition, vertical space use and activity budgets have never been described for these species. Comparing space use and activity patterns across varying forest types will provide insight on how these species are coping with increasing human disturbance and competition for space in less complex canopies. Finally, it is beneficial to understand how these species tolerate and accommodate the heat, as temperatures are increasing due to climate change.

year(s) of publication : 2018
author(s): Fanning, E , Korein, E , Bond, G , Earl, S , Johnson, S.G , Hamm, J , Capria, L , Exley, L
countries: Costa Rica
regions(s): Osa Peninsula

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FRONTIER TANZANIA MARINE RESEARCH PROGRAM, Phase 181 science report

FRONTIER TANZANIA MARINE RESEARCH PROGRAM, Phase 181 science report

All field work carried out by Frontier Tanzania Research Assistants (RAs) in phases 174 and 181 was within Mafia Island Marine Park (MIMP) boundaries. Snorkeling surveys for seagrass and mangroves were continued over the last two phases. Having received training from whale shark experts, basic data was also collected on whale sharks around Mafia, and tourist-whale shark interaction research conducted. The data collected on coral genus instead of the previous benthic substrate and morphology method is reported here for the first time. Marine Protect Areas (MPA) are sanctuaries for coral reefs that can work towards mitigating the effects of anthropogenic exploitation and climate change, if effectively managed (Mora, et al. 2006). The Mafia Island Marine Park is a multi-user MPA consisting of three different zonation tiers: Core, specified and general use; with the overall aim to conserve and protect the biodiversity of Mafia Island reefs (MIMP 2011). There are approximately 23,000 people living within the Marine Park boundaries, many of whom depend on the marine ecosystems either directly eg through fishing or indirectly e.g. through tourism.

year(s) of publication : 2018
author(s): Fanning, E , Read, J. , Shahali, M , Cooper, J , Mussa
countries: Tanzania
regions(s): Mafia Island

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MADAGASCAR MARINE CONSERVATION RESEARCH PROGRAMME, Phase 181

MADAGASCAR MARINE CONSERVATION RESEARCH PROGRAMME, Phase 181

Madagascar, lying approximately 440km off the East coast of Africa, is the world’s fourth-largest island, its over 5000km coastline supporting over 3500km of coral reefs (Cook et al. 2000; McClanahan et al. 2009). The island is home to approximately 25 million people, who share the land with a variety of fauna and flora. Terrestrial faunal endemism is over 80% for many groups, whilst the marine environment shows lower endemism, characteristic of other areas of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) (Goodman and Benstead, 2005). The island exhibits high marine biodiversity; the highest coral diversity in the WIO region (62 genera and 323 species) (Veron and Turak, 2005), with reef fish diversity in the Northwest region comprising at least 576 species (McKenna and Allen, 2003). The nation of Madagascar faces challenges in regards to development. Human development index (HDI) for Madagascar was 0.483 (low) in 2012, with approximately 80% of the population living under the international poverty line (UNDP, 2013). Much of the country’s population is involved in subsistence agriculture and fishing, with over half of the population relying on the marine environment for income. Fisheries landings are poorly reported, and fisheries poorly managed, posing serious issues for marine ecosystems and future food security. Monitoring of Madagascar’s reefs is essential to understanding their state, and the effects of environmental and human impacts on reef ecosystems. Frontier Madagascar has been monitoring sites in Northwest Madagascar since 2010. Operating from Ambalahonko, Nosy Be, it uses trained scientists with the help of trained volunteers to collect data on marine fauna of the area, including benthic, invertebrate, and fish data. This report summarises the research and conservation work undertaken from January to March 2018.

year(s) of publication : 2018
author(s): Fanning, E , Price, N , Ferriday, J , Tomboravo, V , Bennett, L
countries: Madagascar
regions(s): Nosy Be

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